Country Status

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Status of Basel Convention and Basel Ban by Country Table

Last Updated: January 27, 2021.

Country (Annex VII shaded) Basel Party Ratified Ban Amendment Party to Other Accords
Afghanistan 25 March 2013
Albania 29 Jun 1999 (a) Ratified!
27 Oct 2005 (A)
Izmir Protocol
Algeria 15 Sep 1998 (a) Ratified!
03 Jul 2017
Izmir Protocol
Andorra 23 Jul 1999 (a) Ratified!
23 Jul 1999 (A)
Angola 06 Feb 2017 (a) Bamako
Antigua and Barbuda 05 Apr 1993 (a) Ratified!
23 Sep 2016
Argentina 27 Jun 1991 (a) Ratified!
19 Sep 2011
Armenia 01 Oct 1999 (a)
Australia 05 Feb 1992 (a) Waigini Treaty
Austria 12 Jan 1993 (r) Ratified!
17 Oct 1999 (A)
Azerbaijan 01 Jun 2001 (a)
Bahamas 12 Aug 1992 (a)
Bahrain 15 Oct 1992 (r) Ratified!
25 Jul 2005
Bangladesh 01 Apr 1993 (a)
Barbados 24 Aug 1995 (a)
Belarus 10 Dec 1999 (a)
Belgium 01 Nov 1993 (r) Ratified!
20 Jun 2003
Belize 23 May 1997 (a)
Benin 04 Dec 1997 (a) Ratified!
22 Jan 2014
Bhutan 25 Aug 2002 (a)
Bolivia 15 Nov 1996 (r) Ratified!
31 Mar 2005
Bosnia and Herzegovina 16 Mar 2001 (a) Izmir Protocol
Botswana 20 May 1998 (a) Ratified!
17 Jun 2004 (A)
Brazil 01 Oct 1992 (a)
Brunei Darussalam 16 Dec 2002 (a) Ratified!
16 Dec 2002 (A)
Bulgaria 16 Feb 1996 (a) Ratified!
15 Feb 2000
Burkina Faso 04 Nov 1999 (a) Bamako
Burundi 06 Jan 1997 (a) Bamako
Cambodia 02 Mar 2001 (a)
Cameroon 02 Sep 2001 (a) Bamako
Canada 28 Aug 1992 (r)
Cabo Verde 02 Jul 1999 (a)
Central African Republic 24 Feb 2006 (a)
Chad 10 Mar 2004 (a) Bamako
Chile 11 Aug 1992 (r) Ratified!
12 Aug 2009 (A)
China 17 Dec 1991 (r) Ratified!
01 May 2001
Colombia 31 Dec 1996 (r) Ratified!
10 Jun 2014
Comoros 31 Oct 1994 (a) Bamako
Congo, Republic of 20 Apr 2007 (a) Ratified!
02 Sept 2014
Congo, Democratic Republic of 06 Oct 1994 (a) Bamako
Cook Islands 29 Jun 2004 (a) Ratified!
29 Jun 2004
Waigini Treaty
Costa Rica 07 Mar 1995 (a) Ratified!
21 Nov 2019
Cote d'Ivoire 01 Dec 1994 (a) Ratified!
24 Sept 2013
Croatia 09 May 1994 (a) Ratified!
6 Sep 2019
Izmir Protocol
Cuba 03 Oct 1994 (a)
Cyprus 17 Sep 1992 (r) Ratified!
07 Jul 2000 (A)
Izmir Protocol
Czech Republic 30 Sep 1993 (d) Ratified!
28 Feb 2000 (A)
Denmark 07 Feb 1994 (AA) Ratified!
10 Sep 1997 (AA)
Djibouti 31 May 2002 (a)
Dominica 05 May 1998 (a)
Domican Republic 10 Jul 2000 (a)
East Timor
Ecuador 23 Feb 1993 (r) Ratified!
06 Mar 1998
Egypt 08 Jan 1993 (a) Ratified!
27 Jan 2004
Izmir Protocol
El Salvador 13 Dec 1991 (r) Ratified!
07 Dec 2015
Equatorial Guinea 07 Feb 2003 (a)
Eritrea 10 Mar 2005 (a)
Estonia 21 Jul 1992 (a) Ratified!
02 Aug 2001
Ethiopia 12 Apr 2000 (a) Ratified!
08 Oct 2003
European Union 07 Feb 1994 (AA) Ratified!
30 Sep 1997 (AA)
Izmir Protocol
Fiji Waigini Treaty
Finland 19 Nov 1991 (A) Ratified!
05 Sep 1996 (A)
France 07 Jan 1991 (AA) Ratified!
18 Nov 2003 (AA)
Izmir Protocol
Gabon 06 Jun 2008 (a) Bamako
Gambia 15 Dec 1997 (a) Ratified!
07 Mar 2001
Georgia 20 May 1999 (a)
Germany 21 Apr 1995 (r) Ratified!
24 May 2002 (A)
Ghana 20 May 2003 (a) Ratified!
09 Jun 2005
Greece 04 Aug 1994 (r) Ratified!
12 Jul 2010
Izmir Protocol
Guatemala 15 May 1995 (r) Ratified!
26 Dec 2013
Guinea 26 Apr 1995 (r) Ratified!
06 Feb 2017
Guinea-Bissau 09 Feb 2005 (a)
Guyana 05 Apr 1002 (a)
Haiti signature
Hondura 27 Dec 1995 (a) CAA
Hungary 21 May 1990 (AA) Ratified!
25 May 2004 (AA)
Iceland 28 Jun 1995 (a)
India 24 Jun 1992 (r)
Indonesia 20 Sep 1993 (a) Ratified!
24 Oct 2005
Iran, Islamic Republic of 05 Jan 1993 (a) Ratified!
12 Jan 2016
Iraq 07 Feb 1994 (r)
Ireland 07 Feb 1994 (r) Ratified!
13 Nov 2009
Israel 04 Dec 1994 (r) Izmir Protocol
Italy 07 Feb 1994 (r) Ratified!
03 Mar 2009
Izmir Protocol
Jamaica 23 Jan 2003 (a) Ratified!
29 Sep 2015
Japan 17 Sep 1993 (a)
Jordan 22 Jun 1989 (AA) Ratified!
06 Dec 2004 (AA)
Kazakhstan 03 Jn 2003 (a)
Kenya 01 Jun 2000 (a) Ratified!
09 Sep 1009 (A)
Kiribati 07 Sep 2000 (a) Waigini Treaty
Korea, Democratic People's Republic of 10 Jul 2008 (a)
Korea, Republic of 28 Feb 1994 (a)
Kuwait 11 Oct 1993 (r) Ratified!
12 May 2006
Kyrgyzstan 13 Aug 1996 (a)
Lao, People's Democratic Republic 21 Sep 2010 (a)
Latvia 14 Apr 1992 (a) Ratified!
18 Dec 2003 (A)
Lebanon 21 Dec 1994 (r) Ratified!
13 Oct 2017 (A)
Izmir Protocol
Lesotho 31 May 2000 (a) Ratified!
22 Feb 2012 (A)
Liberia 22 Sep 2004 (a) Ratified!
16 Sep 2005 (A)
Libya 12 Jul 2001 (a) Bamako
Izmir Protocol
Liechtenstein 27 Jan 1992 (r) Ratified!
20 May 2003 (A)
Lithuania 24 Apr 1999 (a) Ratified!
07 Nov 2003 (A)
Luxembourg 07 Feb 1994 (r) Ratified!
14 Aug 1997
Madagascar 02 Jun 1999 (a)
Malawi 21 Apr 1994 (a) Ratified!
01 Aug 2017
Malaysia 08 Oct 1993 (a) Ratified!
26 Oct 2001
Maldives 28 Apr 1992 (a) Ratified!
19 Jun 2017
Mali 12 May 2000 (a) Bamako
Malta 19 Jun 2000 (a) Ratified!
12 Dec 2011 (A)
Izmir Protocol
Marshall Islands 27 Jan 2003 (a)
Mauritania 16 Aug 1996 (a)
Mauritius 24 Nov 1992 (a) Ratified!
09 Nov 2004
Mexico 22 Feb 1992 (r)
Micronesia, Federated States of 06 Sep 1995 (a) Waigini Treaty
Moldova, Republic of 02 Jul 1998 (a) Ratified!
18 Nov 2008 (A)
Monaco 31 Aug 1992 (a) Ratified!
20 Mar 2013 (AA)
Izmir Protocol
Mongolia 15 Apr 1997 (a)
Montenegro 23 Oct 2006 (d) Ratified!
23 Oct 2006 (d)
Izmir Protocol
Morocco 28 Dec 1995 (a) Ratified!
Sep 2004 (AA)
Izmir Protocol
Mozambique 13 Mar 1997 (a) Bamako
Myanmar 96 Jan 2015 (A)
Namibia 15 May 1995 (a) Ratified!
31 Aug 2018 (A)
Nauru 12 Nov 2001 (a)
Nepal 15 Oct 1996 (a)
Netherlands 16 Apr 1993 (A) Ratified!
22 Jan 2001 (A)
New Zealand 20 Dec 1994 (r) Waigini Treaty
Nicaragua 03 Jun 1997 (a) Ratified!
13 Jan 2021
Niger 17 Jun 1998 (AA) Ratified!
15 Nov 2015
Nigeria 13 Mar 1991 (r) Ratified!
24 May 2004
Norway 02 Jul 1990 (r) Ratified!
16 Jul 1997 (A)
Oman 08 Feb 1995 (a) Ratified!
17 May 2004
Pakistan 26 Jul 1994 (a)
Palau 08 Sep 2011 (a)
Panama 22 Feb 1991 (r) Ratified!
07 Oct 1998
Papua New Guinea 01 Sep 1995 (a) Waigini Treaty
Paraguay 28 Sep 1995 (a) Ratified!
28 Aug 1998
Peru 23 Nov 1993 (a) Ratified!
30 Mar 2015 (A)
Philippines 21 Oct 1993 (r)
Poland 20 Mar 1992 (r) Ratified!
29 Jan 2003 (A)
Portugal 26 Jan 1994 (r) Ratified!
30 Oct 2000
Qatar 09 Aug 1995 (a) Ratified!
28 Feb 2002
Romania 27 Feb 1992 (a) Ratified!
17 Jul 2002 (A)
Russian Federation 31 Jan 1995 (r)
Rwanda 07 Jan 2004 (a) Bamako
Saint Kitts and Nevis 07 Sep 1994 (a) Ratified!
29 Aug 2019
Saint Lucia 09 Dec 1993 (a) Ratified!
22 Jan 2002
Saint Vincent and Granadines 02 Dec 1996 (a)
Samoa 22 Mar 2002 (a) Waigini Treaty
Sao Tome and Principe 12 Nov 2013 (a)
Saudi Arabia 07 Mar 1990 (r) Ratified!
10 Jan 2013
Senegal 10 Nov 1992 (a) Bamako
Serbia 18 Apr 2000 (a) Ratified!
22 Nov 2002 (A)
Seychelles 11 May 1993 (A) Ratified!
15 Jul 2015
Sierra Leone 01 Nov 2016 (a) Ratified!
15 Jun 2020
Singapore 02 Jan 1996 (a)
Slovak Republic 28 May 1993 (d) Ratified!
11 Sep 1998 (A)
Slovenia 07 Oct 1993 (a) Ratified!
01 Dec 2004
Izmir Protocol
Solomon Islands Waigini Treaty
Somalia 26 Jul 2010 (a)
South Africa 05 May 1994 (a) Ratified!
24 Jun 2016
South Sudan Bamako
Spain 07 Feb 1994 (r) Ratified!
07 Aug 1997 (A)
Izmir Protocol
Sri Lanka 28 Aug 1992 (a) Ratified!
29 Jan 1999
State of Palestine 02 Jan 2015 (a)
Sudan 09 Jan 2006 (a)
Suriname 20 Sep 2011 (a)
Swaziland 08 Aug 2005 (a)
Sweden 02 Aug 1991 (r) Ratified!
10 Sep 1997 (A)
Switzerland 31 Jan 1990 (r) Ratified!
07 Nov 2002 (A)
Syrian Arab Republic 22 Jan 1992 (r) Ratified!
05 Oct 2004
Izmir Protocol
Tanzania, United Republic of 07 Apr 1993 (a) Ratified!
26 Aug 2002
Thailand 24 Nov 1997 (r)
The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia 16 Feb 1997 (a) Ratified!
18 Nov 2004
Togo 02 Jul 2004 (a) Bamako
Tonga 26 Mar 2010 (a)
Trinidad and Tobago 18 Feb 1994 (a) Ratified!
12 Jan 2000
Tunisia 11 Oct 1995 (a) Ratified!
26 Mar 1999
Izmir Protocol
Turkey 22 Jun 1994 (r) Ratified!
27 Aug 2003
Izmir Protocol
Turkmenistan 25 Sep 1996 (a)
Tuvalu Waigini Treaty
Uganda 11 Mar 1999 (a) Bamako
Ukraine 08 Oct 1999 (a)
United Arab Emirates 17 Nov 1992 (r)
United Kingdom 07 Feb 1994 (r) Ratified!
13 Oct 1997
United States signature
Uruguay 22 Dec 1991 (r) Ratified!
10 Mar 1999
Uzbekistan 07 Feb 1996 (a)
Vanuatu 16 Oct 2018 (a)
Venezuela 03 Mar 1998 (r)
Viet Nam 13 Mar 1995 (a)
Yemen, Repiblcic of 21 Feb 1996 (a)
Zambia 15 Nov 1994 (a) Ratified!
27 Jul 2011
Zimbabwe 01 Mar 2012 (a) Bamako
Totals Basel party count Ratified
187 100 Bamako (28)
Waigani Treaty (10)
CAA (6)
Izmir Protocol (22)

* Gray shading indicates an Annex VII country.

General Note: Due to the constant change in status of various treaties, amendments and protocols, the Basel Action Network cannot ensure the absolute accuracy of all of these listings in this table. We therefore appreciate those that will call our attention to any errors or changes in status to assist us in updating the table as accurately and in as timely a manner as possible.

Summary Explanation of Table Listings

Basel Convention

”The Basel Convention on the Transboundary Movement of Hazardous Wastes and their Disposal” was adopted on 21 March 1989 and went into force on 5 May 1992. It establishes a framework of control over the transboundary movements of hazardous wastes.

As listed in the 2nd column of the table above, if a country has joined the treaty through the deposit of ratification (r), accession (a), acceptance (A) or Approval (AA) they are considered Parties as of the indicated date of deposit. The total number of such Parties is listed at bottom. If a country has signed the treaty but has not yet ratified it, this is indicated by the word “signature”.

Basel Ban Amendment

Plenipotentiaries Meeting: At the meeting of Plenipotentiaries in Basel, Switzerland in March of 1989 a great effort was made to insert a prohibition in the text of the Convention to prevent rich, developed countries from exporting their hazardous wastes to developing countries. Indeed, most developed countries believed this to be the most important reason for the Convention itself. By virtue of the consensus process by which any one country could block an agreement, they were to be disappointed when the United States and some other developed countries continually blocked different variations of the ban. At the adoption of the Convention without the ban, the African Group walked out refusing to sign, stating that they would create their own Convention in Africa which they later accomplished (Bamako Convention).

Second Conference of Parties: Following adoption of the Convention, there was an attempt to create a ban on the export of hazardous wastes from developed to developing countries at the first Conference of the Parties. The first real ban decision did not come into being until the Second Conference of the Parties. Decision II/12 was passed by a consensus of the 66 Parties present in Geneva on 25 March 1994. In this ban all exports of hazardous wastes from OECD to non-OECD countries would be banned. The ban took place immediately for final disposal, and for those wastes bound for recycling destinations, the ban took effect on 31 December 1997. However, detractors of the ban claimed that for the decision to be legally binding it need to become an amendment to the Convention. Thus at the Third Conference of the Parties a new decision III/1 was adopted to create the Basel Ban Amendment.

Third Conference of the Parties: Decision III/1 and Annex VII: Decision III/1 was passed by a consensus of the Parties present at the Third Conference of Parties of the Basel Convention on 22 September 1995 (COP3). It has been determined that there were 90 Parties at that time. The decision established an amendment to the Convention to establish a new Article 4A and an Annex VII. The article obligates Parties that are listed on Annex VII (country members of the OECD, EU and Liechtenstein) to ban exports of hazardous wastes to all countries not listed on Annex VII. Annex VII countries are indicated by the gray shading in the table above. The amendment went into force on December 5, 2019.

In the table above, the third column indicates if the country was present at COP3 and the 4th column indicates whether the country has ratified to date. If a country appears on both the 3rd and 4th columns then its ratification counts towards the 66 Parties needed for entry into force of the amendment.

The Basel Ban Amendment entered into force on December 5, 2019!

For more information on the Basel Ban Amendment click here.

Organization of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)

When the Parties to the Convention sought to make an economic distinction between developed and developing countries in Decision II/12, they chose the divider line established by the OECD — a group which currently has 34 members and for the most part represents the more highly developed and industrialized countries. This group by far produces the most hazardous waste (estimated at 90%) and by far has the most resources to ensure that it is dealt with responsibly at home. Thus, the Basel Ban Decision and Amendment were meant to apply only to these countries. In 1995, the Parties created Annex VII and included the EU countries as well as Liechtenstein (an EFTA member country).

European Union

The Basel Convention allows political or economic integration organizations to join the Convention as Parties to it. The European Commission of the European Economic Community, now known as the European Union, has ratified the Convention as have most of their member states. When it comes time to vote in the Convention, ordinarily the European Commission has the competence to vote the 27 votes of the member states plus one vote for the Commission as a bloc of 28. While the competence over ratification of the treaty itself or its amendments remains the subject of some controversy, it is generally accepted that the European Commission possesses the competence for ratification or accession especially over treaties related to trade.

European Economic Agreement

Additionally the countries of Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway, all members of the European Free Trade Association (EFTA) are also bound by the implementation legislation 259/93 and amendments (see below) due to their obligations under the trade linking agreement between EFTA and the EU known as the European Economic Agreement (EEA).

Basel Ban

(See Ban Amendment)

Decision II/12: This decision was passed by a consensus of the 66 Parties at the Second Conference of Parties of the Basel Convention on 25 March 1994. All exports of hazardous wastes from OECD to non-OECD countries would be banned. The ban takes place immediately for final disposal, and for those wastes bound for recycling destinations, the ban would take effect on 31 December 1997.

Decision III/1 and Annex VII: This decision was passed by a consensus of the Parties present at the Third Conference of Parties of the Basel Convention on 22 September 1995. It has been determined that there were 87 Parties at that time. The decision established an amendment to the Convention to establish a new Article 4A and an Annex VII. The article obligates Parties that are listed on Annex VII (country members of the OECD, EU and Liechtenstein) to ban exports of hazardous wastes to all countries not listed on Annex VII. The ban would take place immediately for final disposal, and for those wastes bound for recycling destinations, the ban would take effect on 31 December 1997. The Amendment will go into force when 66 countries (3/4ths of the 87 Parties at that time) have ratified it.

A "Yes" on the table, indicates the country joined in the consensus decision in 1995. The word “Ratified” and the country flag indicates that the country has deposited its ratification.

Bamako Convention

“The Bamako Convention on the ban on the Import into Africa and the Control of Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within Africa,” adopted on 29 January 1991, in Bamako, Mali, prohibits the import into Africa of any hazardous, including radioactive, wastes, as well as products which have been banned, cancelled or withdrawn from registration for environmental or health reasons. The Convention entered into force on April 22, 1998 and has had three Conferences of Parties to date. The word "Bamako" in the last column in the table above indicates a country that has ratified the Bamako Convention.

Waigani Convention

“The Convention to Ban the Importation into Forum Island Countries of Hazardous and Radioactive Wastes and to Control the Transboundary Movement and Management of Hazardous Wastes within the South Pacific Region” was adopted on the 16 September 1995, in Waigani, Papua New Guinea by the South Pacific Forum States. The treaty prohibits each Pacific Island developing Party from importing all hazardous and radioactive wastes from outside of the Convention area. Australia and New Zealand are prohibited from exporting hazardous or radioactive wastes to all other South Pacific Forum Island countries. The Convention is now in force. The word "Waigani" in the last column in the table above indicates a country that has ratified the Waigani Convention.

Izmir Protocol

The Parties to the Convention for the Protection of the Mediterranean Sea against Pollution, (Barcelona Convention) adopted the “Protocol on the Prevention of Pollution of the Mediterranean Sea by Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal” (Izmir Protocol) on 1 October 1996 in Izmir, Turkey. The protocol prohibits the export of hazardous and radioactive wastes to non-OECD countries and those Parties that are not members of the European Community are prohibited from importing hazardous and radioactive wastes. For the purposes of this protocol, Monaco is considered to part of the OECD and the European Community. The protocol is in force. The word “Izmir” in the last column in the table above indicates a country that has ratified the protocol.

Central American Agreement

(Acuerdo Regional sobre Movimiento Transfronterizo de Desechos Peligrosos) The Central American Agreement on Hazardous Waste “Acuerdo Regional sobre MovimientoTransfronterizo de Desechos Peligrosos” signed in December of 1992 by the Cumbre de Presidentes del Istmo Centroamericano, creates a ban on the import of all hazardous wastes into the Central American region. The agreement is understood to currently be binding on all 6 member states. The Agreement defines hazardous waste as does the Bamako Convention above.

The letters “CAA” in the last column of the table above indicates a country for which the agreement is in force.